Vernier caliper consists of two steel rules and they can slide along with each other.
- One is a long rectangular metal strip that has a fixed jaw on one end. It is graduated in inches at its upper end and centimeter at its lower end which is called the main scale.
The main scale is marked on solid L shape frames, on which cm graduates are divided into 20 parts so that a small division is equal to 0.05 cm. This allows improvements in the commonly used measuring techniques, over direct measurement with line graduated method.
- There is another small rectangular metal strip that is graduated with a special relation to that of the main scale, which is called the vernier scale which slides over this long metal strip it has a jaw similar to that of the main scale.
There are two jaws on the vernier caliper upper jaw and lower jaw. These jaws together are used to hold the object firmly while measuring its length which is not possible with a meter scale.
The external or lower jaws are generally used to measure the diameter of a sphere or a cylinder. The internal jaws or upper jaws are generally used to measure the internal diameter of a hollow cylinder.
There is also a metal strip attached at the back of the vernier calipers which is used to measure the internal depth of a cylinder.
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